Evaluation of exposure information.
Schneider-T; Olsen-I; Jorgensen-O; Lauersen-B
Appl Occup Environ Hyg 1991 Jun; 6(6):475-481
Development of a generally applicable deterministic exposure assessment model for retrospective assessment was addressed. Two steps were required: introduction of a specific set of universally applicable and mutually independent exposure modifiers (EMs) selected according to first principles; and development of a list of explicit expressions of these EMs in terms of physical and chemical parameters for use in a multiplicative model. Such EMs could then be used for stepwise correction backwards from present exposure data to determine historic concentrations. Model parameters could be renormalized from any available relevant historic exposure data. A list of six suggested EMs and seven subdivisions of one EM (source output strength) was presented. EM ranges could vary by several orders of magnitude. Possible secondary sources of exposure information included research and development records, analytical laboratory records, process and production records, facility engineering records, industrial engineering records and accounting records. Industrial archeology was demonstrated in a dendrochronological study of deposits in an old ventilation duct from a paint manufacturing facility. Historic information could be obtained currently by studying antiquated processes used in developing countries. Model use was adversely affected by coupling between physical environment and human behavior, selective use of control technology on most significant sources and variable individual influence of changes. Estimations of model sensitivity to such factors was recommended. The authors conclude that application of good survey techniques, refinement of initial exposure assessment methods and development of deterministic retrospective assessment models are important along with good documentation of environmental conditions.
NIOSH-Publication; NIOSH-Contract; Contract-91-38661; Humans; Exposure-levels; Analytical-models; Occupational-exposure; Mathematical-models; Industrial-hygiene; Information-systems; Analytical-methods
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene