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Biologic markers in risk assessment for environmental carcinogens.
Perera F; Mayer J; Santella RM; Brenner D; Jeffrey A; Latriano L; Smith S; Warburton D; Young TL; Tsai WY; Hemminki K; Brandt-Rauf P
Environ Health Perspect 1991 Jan; 90:247-254
The use of biological markers in risk assessments for environmental carcinogens was discussed. Biological markers have the potential for improving cancer risk assessments because they can provide quantitative estimates of the biologically effective dose of the carcinogen to the target tissue, they can provide an earlier, more sensitive outcome than tumor incidence, they can provide information on interindividual variations in response to a carcinogenic exposure, and they can help clarify mechanisms by which carcinogens exert their effects. Recent studies on macromolecular adducts and oncogene activation were reviewed. The use of adducts in quantitative risk assessment and mechanistic studies was discussed. Evaluating interindividual variability in risk assessments was discussed. As biological markers become more precise and more reproducible they can be useful for evaluating individual susceptibility to carcinogenic exposures, something that cannot be done from dose response relationships established in laboratory animal or epidemiologic studies. The authors conclude that biological markers such as carcinogen/DNA adducts and oncogene expression are valid quantitative indicators of cancer risk. Since biomarkers for most chemical exposures have not been validated, the validity of each marker should be established before it is used for a risk assessment.
NIOSH-Publication; NIOSH-Grant; Biological-monitoring; Risk-analysis; Carcinogenicity; Biochemical-indicators; DNA-adducts; Epidemiology; Environmental-exposure
F. Perera, Colunbia University School of Public Health, 60 Haven Avenue, B-109, New York, NY 10032
Environmental Health Perspectives
Columbia University New York, New York, New York
Page last reviewed: September 11, 2020
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division