This testimony concerned the view of NIOSH regarding the proposed rule on occupant protection in motor vehicles and provided information which should be useful in developing the final standard. NIOSH has determined that motor vehicle traffic deaths are the leading cause of occupational deaths due to traumatic injuries. State specific studies in Maryland, Colorado, and Massachusetts, using multiple data sources, revealed that motor vehicle traffic incidents were the leading cause of occupational injury and death in each of those states. Various geographically based studies using medical examiner or autopsy information provided data indicating that alcohol may play a role in occupational motor vehicle fatalities. Workers in nonfatal incidents have not been uniformly tested for alcohol and drug use, as uniform requirements between the states do not exist for this testing. It was noted that driver training and safety awareness education should reduce the number of fatal motor accidents. By far the most dramatic increase in seat belt use has resulted from compulsory or mandatory policies. Two important factors in seat belt usage were the use of the belt and the proper fitting of the belt. Factors associated with driver fatigue and loss of alertness were also considered. Responses were also made to the following specific issues: vehicle safety inspection and maintenance programs, pretrip and post trip vehicle inspection and reports, employer turnover and training, proof of training, impaired driving awareness program, vehicle over crossing, automatic crash protection and other engineering controls, and the consideration of bicycles in this same ruling.