A projected program for preventing pneumoconioses in Brazilian workers employed in dusty trades was discussed. The program was designed to control and decrease the number of industrial pneumoconiosis cases through primary, secondary, and tertiary integrated preventive measures. The primary prevention component consisted of eliminating occupational dust exposures by environmental and administrative measures and worker education programs. Secondary prevention involved early detection of pathological conditions leading to pneumoconioses. The tertiary component involved minimizing the medical and social complications resulting from pneumoconioses through medical treatment and rehabilitation. Short and medium term measures have been taken such as identifying worker populations at risk for pneumoconiosis, providing information to increase worker and employer awareness of health hazards associated with dust exposure, training experts for evaluating dust exposures and diagnosing pneumoconioses, controlling dust in workplaces, establishing multidisciplinary pneumoconiosis centers, providing subsidies for workplace inspection programs, and tightening occupational safety and health legislation relevant to controlling pneumoconioses. The program will be implemented in only six Brazilian states where the largest number of mining and manufacturing workers, representing 70% of the working population, are located. The emphasis will be on controlling occupational exposures to coal, silica (14808607), asbestos (1332214), and other crystalline silicate dusts.