Four elements have been identified which contribute to death and disease through musculoskeletal injuries. These factors include environmental hazards, human biologic factors, behavioral factors or unhealthy lifestyles, and inadequacies in the existing health care and ancillary systems. Hazards to the musculoskeletal system associated with work are described as workplace traumatogens, a source of biomechanical stress stemming from job demands that exceed the worker's strength or endurance such as heavy lifting, or repetitive forceful manual twisting. Human biologic factors include the anthropometric or innate attributes that influence a worker's capacity for safely performing the job. Behavioral factors or unhealthy lifestyles refer to acquired behaviors or personal habits that increase the worker's risk of incurring musculoskeletal strain or injury. Inadequacies of the existing health care and ancillary systems include a lack of medical knowledge and appropriate training for health care personnel on the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of musculoskeletal problems that result from biomechanical strain. Topics considered in this report include the musculoskeletal conditions to be addressed, the scope of the national problem, the potential for prevention and control, the tactical areas of a national strategy for prevention, and the action plan.