This testimony concerns the support of NIOSH for the OSHA proposed standard concerning excavation hazards. NIOSH estimates that about 200,000 establishments employ about 1.2 million workers who may be subjected to the hazards of excavation. Neither the existing standard, nor the proposed revisions contain provision for worker training. NIOSH urges OSHA to include a requirement that workers be trained in the recognition and avoidance of hazards attendant to excavations. NIOSH indicates that compliance with the existing OSHA standard would dramatically reduce deaths and injuries during excavations. NIOSH suggests that employers maintain documentation of any opinions from professional engineers. Comments are also included on the use of ramps in place of steps, negotiable slopes, impure atmospheres, use of protective and safety clothing, design requirements, and surcharge loads.