This testimony summarized information concerning the effects of occupational lead (7439921) exposure upon human health including recent results of studies by NIOSH on lead workers. According to the testimony, more than 1 million American workers are occupationally exposed to lead. Some of the highest exposures occur during industrial processes such as primary and secondary lead smelting and lead battery manufacturing. Lead exposure occurs in more than 100 other occupations. The toxicology and metabolism of lead have been extensively studied. Lead is stored in the bone and other vital organs and tissues including the kidneys and the nervous system. Continued chronic exposure to high levels of lead, even intermittent, can cause death or permanent damage to the nervous system, serious damage to the kidneys and impaired red blood cell production. Workers may feel weak, tired, and irritable. They may experience trembling, severe colic and digestive disturbances, and convulsions. Epidemiologic studies of workers at five different lead facilities have shown unacceptably high blood lead levels and symptoms of lead poisoning at every site studied. The results of these studies are cited in efforts to support the need for establishing an exposure standard for lead in the workplace.