This testimony presented before the Subcommittee on Investigations and Oversight of the Committee on Science and Technology stressed the recent work done in the area of byssinosis. According to the testimony, exposure to cotton dust causes both acute and chronic lung disorders. Symptoms of byssinosis have been recognized in cotton workers for almost 300 years. Cigarette smoking substantially increases the risk of this disease. There is no confirmed explanation of the mechanics by which cotton dust causes byssinosis. However, there are still steps which can be taken to prevent this disease. Nearly 600,000 workers in the United States are exposed to cotton dust. Disease prevention is based on three major preventive tactics: reducing the exposure of workers to cotton dust, periodically monitoring the health status of cotton workers, and encouraging cotton workers not to smoke. Several recently published papers are cited, including one analyzing medical data concerning 431,173 workers at seven companies, another analyzing pulmonary function among knitting industry workers, and a third discussing clinical and research issues of byssinosis. Written comments have been presented to OSHA concerning the Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on the cotton dust standard.