Injury surveillance programs were described and discussed. Current epidemiological and surveillance concepts applicable for investigating occupational injuries were reviewed. Existing databases that can be used for occupational injury surveillance were discussed. These included demographically oriented data sets such as the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Employment and Wages ES-202 Program and the Occupational Employment Statistics and the Occupational Employment Statistics Survey and health outcome oriented databases such as the BLS Annual Survey of Injuries and Illnesses, the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, the BLS Supplementary Data System, and the Centers for Disease Control and NIOSH Fatal Accident Circumstances and Epidemiology Program. It was noted that none of the databases contained much information on occupational hazards that are causal factors for injuries. The few that do have focused on the mechanics and the event rather than the exposure or causal factors. Examples of detection and monitoring strategies that can be used for injury surveillance were given. Recommendations for improving injury surveillance were given. These included defining populations at risk more precisely, improving hazard monitoring, injury process and event coding, reporting of health outcomes, analyzing causal factors, expanding the coverage of fatality monitoring, and developing better intervention strategies and evaluation techniques.