This testimony before the Subcommittee on Manpower, Compensation, and Health and Safety concerned the research and technical assistance activities of NIOSH in the area of mine safety and health. Under the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969, NIOSH, at the Morgantown, West Virginia location, studied the protection of life and health, the detection of respiratory impairment, and the prevention of occupational diseases of coal miners. The institute established additional coal mine health standards and assured the availability of medical examinations for underground coal miners. The Testing and Certification Laboratory has evaluated and approved respirators, coal mine dust personal sampler units, and gas detector tubes. NIOSH has developed recommended standards for some of the most important health hazards facing workers in metal and nonmetallic mines including noise, asbestos (1332214), silica (7631869), beryllium (7440417), inorganic arsenic (7440382), inorganic mercury (7439976), carbon-monoxide (630080), and nitrogen oxides. Cooperative work with other agencies was described. Studies involving uranium (7440611), asbestos, potash, and copper (7440508) industries were noted. Concern was also expressed over exposure to diesel exhaust. Observations concerning a rational approach to the scientific and regulatory problems of Federal occupational and environmental health programs were included.