Hazard Assessment and Control Technology in Semiconductor Manufacturing, Lewis Publishers, Inc., Chelsea, Michigan 1989:271-283
Approaches for identifying, characterizing, and managing potential toxic gas accidents in the semiconductor and photovoltaics industry were outlined. Data of direct relevance to this industry were presented. A hazard identification and characterization analysis was performed to identify those chemicals, processes or activities which may present harm to human life, environment, or property. The first step in this overall process was environmental auditing which provided a systematic, documented, periodic, and objective review of facility plans, operations, and practices related to environmental issues. As a followup to auditing, screening tools often have been used to identify activities or processes presenting the greatest hazards and therefore requiring the greatest amount of attention. Several guidelines have been published for these screenings by private, national and international organizations. The weakness associated with the application of guidelines was that they provide no estimate of the actual risks or consequences associated with an incident or the probability of an incident. A more structured risk analysis must be performed to get these answers. Such analyses may require the compilation and amalgamation of source/term, exposure and dose/response information. Techniques used to determine the probability of an event and the causative initiating events included preliminary hazard analysis, failure mode and effects analysis, failure mode effect and criticality analysis, parts count method, fault hazard analysis, fault tree analysis, event tree analysis, simulation, double failure matrix, cause consequence diagrams, relative ranking, epidemiological approach, and reliability analysis. A brief synopsis of failure mode and effect analysis, event tree analysis, and fault tree analysis was presented.
Hazard Assessment and Control Technology in Semiconductor Manufacturing, Lewis Publishers, Inc., Chelsea, Michigan