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Health hazard evaluation report: HETA-87-109-1950, North Riverside Fire Department, North Riverside, Illinois.
Zey JN; Richardson F
Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, HETA 87-109-1950, 1989 Mar; :1-20
In response to a request from the International Association of Fire Fighters, an assessment was made of the toxicity of smoke clouds produced by a zinc-chloride (7646857) (ZnCl2) smoke generating device used in training exercises at the Fire Training Facility of the North Riverside Fire Department (SIC-9224), North Riverside, Illinois. Analysis indicated that the smoke contained hydrochloric- acid (7647010), zinc compounds and several chlorinated hydrocarbons. Evaluations were made during two separate training exercises. Hydrochloric-acid concentrations ranged from trace amounts to 44mg/m3, exceeding the OSHA recommended ceiling level criteria of 7mg/m3. Zinc-chloride concentrations ranged from 63 to 172mg/m3; the limit was 2mg/m3. Perchloroethylene (127184) concentrations ranged up to 62mg/m3. The amount of smoke generated for the exercise significantly surpassed that recommended by the manufacturer. Five and six participants in the two exercises experienced symptoms including breathing difficulty, joint pain, fever and chills, and general fatigue. These individuals were not wearing a respirator or had removed it as part of the drill. The authors conclude that the dense clouds generated by the smoke generating devices should be considered hazardous to individuals without respiratory protection. The authors recommend the use of a self contained breathing apparatus during training exercises
NIOSH-Author; NIOSH-Health-Hazard-Evaluation; NIOSH-Technical-Assistance-Report; HETA-87-109-1950; Region-5; Hazard-Confirmed; Firemen; Smoke-inhalation; Acid-mists; Zinc-compounds; Author Keywords: Fire Protection; smoke-generating devices; smoke bomb; zinc-chloride; hydrochloric acid; chlorinated hydrocarbons
7646-85-7; 7647-01-0; 127-18-4
Field Studies; Hazard Evaluation and Technical Assistance
NTIS Accession No.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
Page last reviewed: September 2, 2020
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division