The latest and usual occupations and industries for a group of subjects were compared to determine the degree of agreement between the two, for use in epidemiological studies of chronic illnesses. Information on the latest occupation and industry, and the usual occupation and industry were collected as part of the 1980 National Health Interview Survey. The information on the longest job and the lengths of the jobs was collected directly from the persons participating unless they were mentally or physically incapable of answering. Analysis was based on 68,549 persons who provided information on latest occupation or industry. Overall, 68.1 percent of the men had identical codes for occupation with the longest and latest jobs held. For industry the agreement was 69.9 percent. For women, the overall agreement for occupation was 70.5 percent and for industry was 70.3 percent. Statistically, there was a significantly higher percentage of agreement for occupation and industry for black women than for white women. Agreement increased with age for both men and women. The longer the latest job was held the more likely it was to be the usual job. The agreement was over 99 percent for those with more than 20 years in the latest job. Information was provided on the percentage agreement by industry and occupation. The authors conclude that there is sufficient agreement for analyses to use latest occupation or industry in chronic disease surveys instead of usual occupation or industry.