Center for Chemical Hazard Assessment, Syracuse Research Corporation, Syracuse, New York, SRC TR 82-505, Second Draft 1982 Feb:124 pages
Information profiles were presented for the following inorganic chromium compounds deemed to be important because their commercial production exceeds 1 million pounds annually: chromic(VI)-acid (1333820), chromic(III)-hydroxide (1308141), chromic(III)-oxide (1308389), chromic(III)-sulfate (10101538), chromic(III)-sulfate (basic) (12336957), chromium-dioxide (12018018), potassium- dichromate(VI) (7778509), lead-chromate (7758976), sodium- chromate(VI) (7775113), sodium-dichromate(VI) (10588019), and zinc- yellow-chromate(VI) (37300235). Absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory tract, and damaged skin was described. Uptake depended on the chemical form. The highest levels of chromium retention occurred in the reticuloendothelial system, liver, spleen, and bone marrow of animals given chromite or chromium- chloride. Most excretion occurred through the urine. Hexavalent chromium compounds were more capable of crossing biological membranes than trivalent compounds and were more readily absorbed from the gut or through the skin. Biological effects of hexavalent chromium in humans included skin ulceration, dermatitis, nasal membrane irritation and ulceration, nasal septal perforation, rhinitis, nosebleed, nephritis, liver damage, epigastric pain, pulmonary congestion and edema, and erosion and discoloration of teeth. Chromium(VI) compounds caused mutations in a variety of systems. Exposure to trivalent chromium in the workplace has caused contact dermatitis and chrome ulcers. Epidemiological studies indicated respiratory carcinogenicity among workers occupationally exposed during chromate production.
Center for Chemical Hazard Assessment, Syracuse Research Corporation, Syracuse, New York, SRC TR 82-505, Second Draft