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Information profiles on potential occupational hazards: nitroparaffins.
Center for Chemical Hazard Assessment, Syracuse Research Corporation, Syracuse, New York, SRC TR 81-617, Second Draft 1981 Nov; :1-79
Profiles of information were presented for the following nitroparaffins chosen because of their commercial importance: nitroethane (79243), nitromethane (75525), 1-nitropropane (108032), 2-nitropropane (79469), tetranitromethane (509148), and trinitromethane (517259). Oral and inhalation toxicities and the degree of histological damage increase with increasing molecular weight of the compounds. The primary effects included histological liver damage and central nervous system depression, both atactic and narcotic changes, regardless of the route of administration or the duration of exposure. Vapor exposures also caused respiratory tract and conjunctival irritation and pulmonary edema. 1-Nitropropane, 2- nitropropane, tetranitromethane, and trinitromethane have been shown to be methemoglobinic poisons in animals. The development of precancerous lesions in the liver and hepatocellular cancer in rats have followed chronic inhalation exposure to 2-nitropropane. 2- Nitropropane gave a positive mutagenicity test result using the Ames Salmonella assay. Negative results were obtained for limited Salmonella and micronucleus testing of the other nitroparaffins. Symptoms of exposure in humans included headache, nausea, damage to the respiratory tract and liver damage. Most of the exposures to nitroparaffins resulting from occupational pursuits have been to 2- nitropropane.
NIOSH-Contract; Contract-210-79-0030; Solvents; Fuels; Explosives; Coatings; Adhesives; Pesticides; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Central-nervous-system-disorders; Nitro-compounds; Toxic-effects
79-24-3; 75-52-5; 108-03-2; 79-46-9; 509-14-8; 517-25-9
Final Contract Report
NTIS Accession No.
Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; Disease and Injury; Pulmonary-system-disorders
Center for Chemical Hazard Assessment, Syracuse Research Corporation, Syracuse, New York, SRC TR 81-617, Second Draft
Page last reviewed: October 26, 2020
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division