The Relationship of Air Pollution to Lung Cancer in Contra Costa County.
NIOSH 1982 Apr:201-212
In efforts to determine possible relationships between the incidence of cancer among residents in Contra Costa County, California, and the quality of air in the region, a study was undertaken of the particulate pollutants collected from air samples for November 1978 through October 1979, and the cancer incidence records for 1969 through 1979. This was a heavily industrialized area of the state with five major petroleum producers and many chemical manufacturing facilities. A significant excess, 39 percent above expected levels, of lung cancer cases was found among the area residents for all races and both sexes combined. A high degree of correlation existed between lead (7439921) and benzene soluble organics (BSO) for census tracts. This finding, coupled with geographic location, suggested that automotive exhaust was the major source of these pollutants. The particulate material collected from the samples gave a positive result for mutagenicity in the Ames test. A weak but significant association was found for lung cancer in white males and their exposure to the sulfate particulate concentration in the ambient air, the sources of which were primarily oil refining, chemical manufacturing, or oil combustion for the generation of electrical power.
Petroleum-refineries; Combustion-products; Chemical-manufacturing-industry; Industrial-emissions; Environmental-contamination; Cancer-rates; Risk-analysis; Epidemiology;
Proceedings of the Second NCI/EPA/NIOSH Collaborative Workshop: Progress on Joint Environmental and Occupational Cancer Studies, September 9-11, 1981, Rockville, Maryland