Impact of a barium fuel additive on the mutagenicity and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of diesel exhaust particulate emissions.
Draper-WM; Phillips-J; Zeller-HW
Society of Automotive Engineers Technical Paper No. 881651 1988 Jan; :1-19
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content and Ames test mutagenic activity of exhaust particulate matter from a diesel engine burning fuel containing the barium (7440393) based additive Lubrizol-565 were evaluated. A heavy duty air cooled engine commonly used in underground mining equipment was used for the test. The additive was tested at concentrations of 0.75, 1.5 and 3.0 grams per liter in the fuel. Two engine intake conditions were studied: a standard inlet condition and a restricted intake condition. The study demonstrated that the diesel exhaust particulate emissions from the mining engine operated in a light duty, transient cycle, were increased 28 and 33 percent when used at the manufacturer's recommended levels, depending on the intake condition. The additive did not significantly change the soluble organic fraction emitted in the exhaust under any combination of intake pressure or level in the fuel. Total target polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions were enhanced by the use of the barium additive at low levels for either intake condition, but were not significantly increased when used at the manufacturer's recommended level. The barium fuel additive increased the Salmonella-typhimurium mutagenic potency of diesel exhaust particulate matter by 67 to 133 percent when treated fuel contained additive, benefits resulting from reduced exhaust opacity must be weighted against the health risks associated with increased emissions of particulate matter, particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and Ames test mutagens that may occur under light duty engine operation.
NIOSH-Grant; Cancer; Carcinogens; Mutagens; Fuels; Mining-equipment; Diesel-engines; Diesel-exhausts; Diesel-emissions
Calif Pub Hlth Fdn California Pub Hlth Foundtion P O Box 520 Berkeley, Calif 94701-0520
Society of Automotive Engineers Technical Paper No. 881651
California Public Health Foundation, Berkeley, California