Biological monitoring II. Measurements in exhaled air.
Fiserova-Bergerova (Thomas)-V; Lowry-LK; Rosenberg-J
Appl Ind Hyg 1989 Feb; 4(2):F-10-F-13
The use of exhaled air measurements in the monitoring of chemical exposures was discussed. The monitoring of chemical exposures through the analysis of exhaled air is only valid for volatile chemicals. Depending on the sampling technique used, these measurements reflect either the instantaneous blood levels of the determinant in the body (single breath sampling) or the mean blood level during the sampling period (multiple breath sampling). Measurements reflect either the most recent exposure, or exposures on the previous day, as determined by whether the samples are taken during the work shift or 16 hours after the shift. Excess concentrations of a chemical in exhaled air can be an indicator of dermal exposure. The concentration of volatile substances in exhaled air changes during an expiration. Because of dead space, expiration of alveolar air is preceded by the discharge of ambient air which filled the dead space at the end of the previous inspiration. Specimens collected from workers with abnormal pulmonary function are not suitable for routine monitoring. Several precautions which must be employed during the sampling procedures were listed.
NIOSH-Author; Workplace-monitoring; Lung-function; Pulmonary-system; Workplace-studies; Industrial-exposures; Biological-monitoring; Volatiles
Applied Industrial Hygiene