Epidemiology in Studies of Occupational Health.
NIOSH 1978 Jun:212-220
The application of epidemiology to studies of occupational health was reviewed. The three main methods used for epidemiological observations included the method of difference, the method of concomitant variation, and the method of replication. Specific illustrations included John Snow's observations on drinking water sources and the 1854 cholera epidemic in London, the incidence of leukemia following the atomic bomb detonations at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respiratory cancer occurring from a single exposure to asbestos, lung cancer mortality for chromate and oil refinery workers, and standardized mortality ratios for arsenic exposed smelter workers based on the intensity and duration of exposure. Comparisons between different epidemiologic studies done on asbestos (1332214) in North America indicated similar excess risks. The author concludes that epidemiologic studies can be used to determine excess disease from worker exposure to specific agents but cannot be used to prove causality.
Morbidity-rates; Mortality-rates; Cancer-rates; Occupational-exposure; Demographic-characteristics; Health-surveys; Air-contamination; Disease-incidence; Risk-analysis;
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No. 78-169
Infectious Diseases; Disease and Injury;
Occupational Safety and Health Symposia, 1977, Division of Technical Services, NIOSH, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Cincinnati, Ohio, DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No. 78-169