Radiologic Examination of the Lumbosacral Spine.
NIOSH 1978 Jun:89-94
The radiographic anatomy of the normal spine was described in reference to the radiography of congenital and acquired abnormalities affecting the lumbosacral spine. Radiographic views for normal examination of the lumbosacral area included anteroposterior, lateral, both obliques, detailed laterals of the L5 to S1 disc space, and an anteroposterior up angled view profiling the L5 to S1 space. Positions used for stress examinations included lateral flexion and extension and anteroposterior lateral bending. Congenital abnormalities described included spina bifida occulta, hemivertebra, and unfused inferior articular facet apophysis; and the acquired abnormalities presented were Schmorl's nodes, degenerative conditions of the spine, disc space infection, spondylolisthesis, isthmus defects, diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, and ankylosing spondylitis. The recognition of old fractures and primary neoplasms in the radiographic examination of the vertebral column was also discussed.
Skeletal-system-disorders; Skeletal-stress; Bone-disorders; Clinical-diagnosis; X-ray-diagnosis; Body-mechanics; Humans;
Occupational Safety and Health Symposia, 1977, Division of Technical Services, NIOSH, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Cincinnati, Ohio, DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No. 78-169