Advancements made in the pursuit of health and safety for miners in both the areas of research and legislation during 1977 and 1978 were reviewed. Investigations into mining safety were given added support in Fiscal Year (FY) 1978 with the passage of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977. This year also saw the development of pathologic standards for coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) and associated pulmonary disease in coal miners. Studies continued on the elemental composition of fibrosis and nonfibrosis lesions of CWP, and further evidence was sought of genetic factors in pulmonary response to coal dust. Clinical investigations of respiratory diseases involved several projects aimed at early detection of disease and the use of exercise testing. A national study of CWP was designed to relate CWP progression to levels of respirable coal mine dust exposure, provide a scientific basis for determining progression of disease by serial x-rays, and estimate the industrywide prevalence of CWP. Studies were also designed to examine workers exposure to diesel fumes underground. Mortality data was used to determine to what extent such factors as occupational history, severity of CWP, airway obstruction, and chronic bronchitis might influence excess mortality. A brief summary of the chest x-ray program, provided to miners since 1969, was offered. Two new documents were published in the Federal Register during 1978 which set forth rules revising part of the Code of Federal Regulations entitled chest Roentgenographic Examinations and offered changes to the conditions under which underground coal miners are given the option to transfer to another area of the mine.