Application of epidemiologic methods to assess risk of occupational injury.
Sanderson LM; Coleman PJ
Analysis of the Risk of Accidents at Work, Methods and Applications, Ottawa, 12 May 1983, Collection of Communications, International Section of the ISSA for Research on Prevention of Occupational Risks. 1983 May; :37-41
Basic designs available for epidemiological studies of the working population useful for identifying various risks associated with specific occupations were described and discussed. The first of these designs was the cohort or prospective study and the second was the case/comparison or retrospective study. In the cohort design, workers were investigated who had different levels of exposure to risks within a defined employee population. These workers were followed over a period of time until it is possible to calculate a specific rate of injury or injury risk for each of the different exposure levels within the larger group. Cohort studies could be done retrospectively or currently or use a combination of the two time periods. Cohort studies generate the incidence risk, the risk ratio, and the standardized incidence ratio in regard to occupational injury risk. In case/comparison studies the goal is to identify an association between a risk factor and disease. The measurement of risk generated from a case/comparison study was the odds ratio. Possible confounding variables and relationships between risk factors can be studied using multivariate modeling methods. Two examples were provided. One example was of a historical cohort study of occupational injuries sustained in 1979 by a population of blue collar petrochemical workers. The second example concerned fictitious data on risk factors associated with ten construction crew members who were injured in falls from elevations compared with 20 uninjured workers.
Epidemiology; Risk-analysis; Risk-factors; Construction-workers; Accident-analysis; Accident-prevention; Safety-research;
Analysis of the Risk of Accidents at Work, Methods and Applications, Ottawa, 12 May 1983, Collection of Communications, International Section of the ISSA for Research on Prevention of Occupational Risks