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Respiratory Tract Irritants: Mechanisms and Tolerance.
Department of Industrial Environment, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania :6 pages
An attempt was undertaken to develop animal bioassays for the purpose of evaluating the potency of airborne chemical irritants and predicting the safe exposure limits or threshold limit values (TLVs) for workers in industrial settings. A series of 11 industrial chemicals was selected to aid in developing the first bioassay. The model was then extended to include a series of weak sensory irritants and predict TLVs for these compounds. The model was then extended to include alkylbenzenes, mixtures of formaldehyde (50000) and acrolein (107028) and mixtures of acrolein and sulfur-dioxide (7446095). Through a second bioassay, the possibility of pulmonary hypersensitivity was recognized by using toluene-diisocyanate (584849) as the model chemical. This model gave rise to the first demonstration of hapten specific respiratory hypersensitivity in an animal model and can be used to investigate other chemicals suspected of inducing immediate pulmonary hypersensitivity in exposed workers. To evaluate pulmonary irritation from airborne industrial chemicals a third bioassay was developed. A fourth bioassay was developed to evaluate whether airborne chemical irritants would interact with DNA in cells of the respiratory tract as well as in cells of other organs. With this model animals were exposed and alveolar macrophages recovered to evaluate sister chromatid exchanges. As excellent correlation was obtained with the carcinogenic potential of a series of carbamates. The authors concluded that this system shows great promise for evaluating airborne industrial chemicals.
NIOSH-Grant; Eye-irritants; Skin-irritants; Lung-irritants; Chemical-industry-workers; Toxic-gases; Airborne-particles; Laboratory-animals;
Occupational Health University of Pittsburgh 130 DE Soto Street Pittsburgh, PA 15213
50-00-0; 107-02-8; 7446-09-5; 584-84-9;
NTIS Accession No.
Department of Industrial Environment, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Page last reviewed: March 11, 2019
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division