Human exposure to preformed N-nitrosamines was discussed. Studies of occupational exposure to nitrosamines were considered. Industrial workers represented the population with the highest exposure. Studies of leather tannery workers have found N- nitrosodimethylamine (62759) (DMN) exposures as high as 47 micrograms per cubic meter (microg/m3). These concentrations could result in daily exposures of 440 microg. N-nitrosomorpholine (59892) (NMOR) exposures of 2.0microg/m3 have also been found in tanneries. NMOR concentrations of 0.5 to 27microg/m3 have been found in the curing and extrusion areas of rubber tire factories. DMN at concentrations of 2 to 36microg/m3 have been found in a rocket fuel factory where unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine was being manufactured from DMN. Dermal exposure to nitrosamines was discussed. N-nitrosodiethanolamine (1116547) (NDEIA) has been found to be a contaminant of concentrates used for synthetic cutting fluids. NDEIA has been found in facial cosmetics at concentrations of 40 to 48000 micrograms per kilogram (microg/kg) and in hand lotions and hair shampoos at concentrations of 22 to 260microg/kg. Nitrosamines have been found as contaminants in amine salt and dinitroaniline herbicides. Ingestion of nitrosamines was discussed. A wide variety of international beers including United States brands have been found to contain DMN, average concentration 3.0 micrograms per liter (microg/l). DMN has also been found in Scotch whiskies at concentrations of 0.3 to 2.0microg/l. Only three of 73 prescription and over the counter drugs contained nitrosamines despite their containing amine type structures. The author concludes that industrial exposures to preformed nitrosamines are considerably greater than exposure by way of foodstuffs, beer, cosmetics, cutting fluids, and herbicides.
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