Morgantown, WV: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 88-108, 1988 Mar; :1-56
A maintenance guide was developed to help protect workers who must labor inside robot work zones. These workers may be programmers, maintenance technicians, or robot system operators. Most injuries have occurred in the past to workers who were carrying out an assigned task such as programming the system to begin automatic operation, returning the system to automatic operation, and permitting the system to continue operating as designed. Hazards and hazardous locations specifically discussed include the robotized workstation, the unexpected or unintended robot movement, the use of tools by the robot, and hazards from other nearby machines. The use of protective devices such as presence sensors was described. The usefulness of fixed barriers with interlocked gates, different colored warning lights, emergency stop procedures, full system shutdown steps, key lock switches, devices for limiting the robot movement zone, and training and human factors was considered. Schematic methods for injury prevention analysis were offered including a discussion of the benefits of safety analysis, job safety analysis methods, fault tree analysis, diagram for controlling hazardous energy during maintenance and servicing, the Structured Analysis and Design Technique method, and the task observation grid. Proper maintenance of robotic systems was discussed.