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Potential Health Hazards of Organic Pigments and Dyes Used in the Manufacture of Paints and Surface Coatings. Appendix I: Scientific Basis for the Proposed Regulation of Dyes Derived from the Chemical Substances Benzidine, 3,3'-Dimethylbenzidine,.
NIOSH 1978 Aug; :79 pages
The scientific bases for regulating dyes derived from benzidine (92875), 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine (119937), and 3,3'- dimethoxybenzidine (119904) were presented. Studies of these compounds have demonstrated that benzidine type dyes undergo nearly complete cleavage to known potent human carcinogenic agents through several metabolic and biological pathways, that these metabolites are carcinogenic in human and animal studies, that the toxicity and carcinogenicity of benzidine type dyes has been demonstrated in animals, and that there is a high incidence of bladder cancer among users of benzidine type dyes. The above mentioned parent compounds were among the carcinogenic metabolites of such dyes. Industrial workers were at risk through the inhalation of dye dusts, absorption through skin exposure, and accidental ingestion. Industries involved included dye manufacture, textile finishing, leather working, and paper dyeing. Statistics were provided concerning the production volume of benzidine type coloring agents and total sales of direct dyes in the United States. Direct dyes sold for home and craft use that may contain benzidine type dyes were listed by brand name and company or distributor. Commercial trade names of dyes and pigments based on these chemical substances were listed. Chemical identification of benzidine type dyes was described. Alternatives to benzidine type dyes were suggested, and a history of legislative attempts to regulate benzidine type dye production was provided.
NIOSH-Contract; Organic-pigments; Carcinogens; Metabolic-study; Aromatic-hydrocarbons; Epidemiology; Azo-dyes; Humans; Laboratory-animals; Bladder-cancer; Occupational-exposure; Skin-absorption;
92-87-5; 119-93-7; 119-90-4
NTIS Accession No.
International Chemical Workers Union, Akron, Ohio, NIOSH Task Order CDC 78-2911, 79 pages, 131 references
Page last reviewed: May 5, 2020
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division