Health Care Trends in United States Industry.
Pedersen-DH; Sieber-WK; Sundin-DS
Health care trends in United States industry were discussed. The results of two NIOSH surveys conducted in 1972 to 1974 and 1981 to 1983 to describe health and safety conditions in the American workplace were summarized. In 1983 approximately 2.44 million more workers were receiving health care than in 1974; however, the percentage of workers covered had decreased from 86.4 to 84.7 percent. The percentage of workers receiving health care in large manufacturing facilities increased from 81.4 percent in 1974 to 87.4 percent in 1983; however, the percentage of covered workers in nonmanufacturing facilities decreased from 18.5 to 12 percent over the same time period. The percentage of the workforce having a physician on-site decreased sharply in both manufacturing and nonmanufacturing facilities, from 72.8 to 32.5 percent and from 81 to 57.2 percent, respectively. In nonmanufacturing facilities, the proportion of the workforce with an on-site nurse decreased from 71.5 to 48.1 percent; the percentage of manufacturing facilities providing nurses remained constant at about 86 percent. Utilization of on-site physicians and nurses in large manufacturing factories increased from 1974 to 1983. Absenteeism decreased in large manufacturing facilities but increased in nonmanufacturing facilities between 1974 and 1983. Both large manufacturing and nonmanufacturing facilities increased their use of medical tests, primarily blood, urine, and pulmonary function tests. Use of preemployment medical examinations remained essentially constant in large manufacturing facilities but decreased in nonmanufacturing facilities. The authors conclude that except for using certain medical tests, nonmanufacturing industrial facilities show a definite trend away from providing health care to their workers.
NIOSH-Author; Occupational-health; Medical-examinations; Health-protection; Health-care-personnel; Industrial-factory-workers; Lost-work-days;
The Changing Nature of Work and Workforce, Proceedings of the Third Joint US-Finnish Science Symposium, Frankfort, Kentucky, October 22-24, 1986, NIOSH, Cincinnati, Ohio