Behavioral performance information documented in the literature concerning short duration exposures to organic solvents was compared with other indicators of neurotoxicity. The information was examined for its usefulness in establishing recommendations for exposure limits to prevent acute effects, as well as chronic effects from longer term solvent exposures. A brief review of the research approaches available for delineating the course of solvent neurotoxicity was presented. Short duration laboratory exposure research has provided test results under conditions affording tight control of exposure and situational variables. Tables were presented listing chemicals that have been tested in controlled laboratory studies; the recommended workday and ceiling or short term exposure limits (STELs) as prescribed by NIOSH, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), and OSHA; reported concentrations which produce irritant effects; and concentrations reported to produce neurobehavioral test effects. A comparison of chemicals indicating where concentrations were tested near or below the NIOSH recommended exposure limits (RELs) or the ACGIH threshold limit values (TLVs), and where no behavioral performance changes were reported, was provided. A rough calculation of the effect ratios using the present day NIOSH RELs, ACGIH TLVs, and the OSHA permissible exposure limits was presented to indicate the potential for the prevention of neurotoxic effects by using objective neurobehavioral test results. Complexities involved in these determinations were discussed. The author concludes that the criteria presently in use need to be expanded for recommending safe exposure limits for individuals exposed to solvents.