Hazard prevention in automated factories using robots was discussed. The current U.S. robot population of 17,000 has been predicted to increase to 100,000 by 1990. As in the case of many new technologies, industrial robots may have been introduced into the workplace without considering their safety and health impacts. Only limited guidelines have been available to assist in installing and using industrial robots safely. Analyses of fatal accidents involving robots were summarized. One robot related fatality in the U.S. and five in Japan have been reported as of the end of 1984. In each case, the victims were experienced and trained in using robotic systems. They had entered the working range of a robot under power by climbing over the safety perimeter or overriding existing safeguarding devices. All of the victims were struck from behind and pinned between the robot and stationary fixtures or equipment. NIOSH recommendations for preventing robot related injuries and fatalities were discussed. These were based on designing robotic work stations to be safe, training employees to properly program, operate, or perform maintenance on robotic systems, and urging management to make a conscientious effort to provide safe working conditions.