Occupational Exposures to Airborne Endotoxins in Agriculture.
Olenchock-SA; May-JJ; Pratt-DS; Morey-PR
Detection of Bacterial Endotoxins with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Test, Proceedings of an International Conference Held in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, September 8-11 1987:475-487
The presence of extremely high levels of airborne endotoxins during the normal fall unloading process of silage at five dairy farms in upstate New York was reported. The Andersen Ambient Sampler was used to collect dusts on glass fiber filters by aerodynamic particle size distribution at the silo base in or near the feed barns. Samplers were positioned at 3 to 5 meters from the exit of the silo discharge chute. Area sampling for total dust was performed within the silos using five micron pore size, 37 millimeter polyvinyl- chloride filters as the collection media in two piece closed face samplers operating at 2.0 liters per minute. Airborne dusts were measured within one silo by suspending a cassette impactor at the center of the silo cap at the initial breathing zone of the farmer while he unloaded the silage. The impactor fractionates the airborne dusts within the silo by aerodynamic particle size. Endotoxin contamination existed in every particle size in the silos and at the termination of the discharge chutes in the feed barns or outside. The endotoxin contents varied on a dust weight basis. One silo in particular had markedly higher airborne endotoxin burdens. The authors conclude that monitoring of only gravimetric dust levels would not have been sufficient in these cases to give the farmers adequate information regarding the levels in endotoxin burden and subsequent respiratory insult arising from these dusts.
Dust-inhalation; Agricultural-workers; Farmers; Airborne-dusts; Air-sampling-equipment; Air-sampling-techniques; Toxins;
Watson-SW; Levin-J; Novitsky-TJ;
Detection of Bacterial Endotoxins with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Test, Proceedings of an International Conference Held in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, September 8-11