Environmental and occupational protection in the secondary lead industry.
Craig-AB Jr.; Vandervort-R; Burton-DJ; Coleman-RT Jr.
Proceedings of the symposium on occupational health hazard control technology in the foundry and secondary non-ferrous smelting industries, December 10-12, 1979, Chicago, Illinois. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 81-114, 1981 Aug; :315-353
The results were presented of sampling studies performed at a secondary lead (7439921) smelter (SIC-3341), both prior to the installation of fugitive emission controls and with the new control system partially installed. The test smelter, in which scrap batteries are broken using slow moving shears, comprises a vertical blast furnace housed in an open air building provided with local exhaust ventilation. The smelter operated normally during the test period, but after the initial visit efforts were made to clean up yard areas and improve housekeeping. During an interim visit floors of the smelter building were visibly cleaner, and problems with furnace burner adjustment and furnace temperature control were nearly solved. A steady feed of flue dust to the furnace was not established. Substantial improvements were observed when exhaust air flows measured after installation of the new exhaust system were compared with measurements made with the old system in operation. Stack sampling indicated the presence of lead, antimony (7440360), sulfur (7704349) and chlorine (7782505) in emissions from the baghouse. Ambient air testing showed the presence of negligible quantities of particulate emissions from the smelter stack in air up to 1 kilometer away from the smelter. An evaluation of workplace lead in air contamination monitoring data covering the last two years indicated the presence of severe lead in air concentrations. Also, blood lead concentrations of workers were elevated indicating that exposures to lead were significant despite the use of respiratory protection devices. Planned improvements to the smelter, the major component of which is a new baghouse system, were described. Recommendations concerning control relating to all aspects of the smelter operation as well as other industrial hygiene considerations, were discussed.
NIOSH-Contract; Contract-210-79-0048; Environmental-contamination; Occupational-exposure; Lead-production; Lead-smelting; Occupational-safety-programs; Air-quality-monitoring; Exhaust-ventilation
7439-92-1; 7440-36-0; 7704-34-9; 7782-50-5
Proceedings of the symposium on occupational health hazard control technology in the foundry and secondary non-ferrous smelting industries, December 10-12, 1979, Chicago, Illinois