Toxic substances and congenital malformations.
Proceedings Conference on Women and the Workplace, June 17-19, 1976, Washington, DC. Bingham E, ed. Washington, DC: Society for Occupational and Environmental Health, 1977 Apr; :28-31
The exposure of pregnant women to various substances which resulted in malformations in their offspring was reviewed. Evidence of the possibility of such occurrences was not firmly and scientifically based until the 1930's and 1940's. Countless teratologic experiments were performed using animal models during the 19th century. While these tests were of scientific value, they were not necessarily applicable to human conditions. Certain deficiencies in the diet of animals were shown to result in malformations in the fetus. Certain other studies identified various positive teratogens, substances, and procedures which caused malformations in the offspring to occur. Nitrogen-mustard (51752) produced severe malformations in rodents; trypan-blue (72571) produced exencephaly, hydrocephaly, spina bifida, and other malformations; many antimetabolites and antitumor drugs including aminopterin (54626), methotrexate (59052), myleran (55981), cyclophosphamide (50180), and chlorambucil (305033) caused malformations in children; some antibiotics such as streptonigrin (3930196) produced malformations in rats which were different from those produced by other teratogens; cortisone (53065) produced cleft palate in some strains of mice; oral hypoglycemics and insulin (9004108) were teratogenic in rodents; hypervitaminosis-A resulted in exencephaly in many species. Also shown to be teratogenic were phenylmercuric-acetate (62384), nicotine (54115), caffeine (58082), aspirin (50782), thalidomide (50351), and even sodium-chloride. The author cautions that while such data can show how certain agents may be teratogenic, such results must not be strictly equated with human teratogenicity.
NIOSH-Contract; Contract-210-76-0154; Laboratory-animals; Teratogenesis; Pharmaceuticals; Reproductive-system-disorders; Reproductive-effects; Embryotoxicity; Embryopathology; Environmental-pollution
51-75-2; 72-57-1; 54-62-6; 59-05-2; 55-98-1; 50-18-0; 305-03-3; 3930-19-6; 53-06-5; 9004-10-8; 62-38-4; 54-11-5; 58-08-2; 50-78-2; 50-35-1
Proceedings of the Conference on Women and the Workplace, Washington, D. C., June 17-19, 1976, NIOSH