Approaches to Quantitative Expression of Dose Response.
NIOSH 1985 May:16 pages
The methods used to determine the risks of developing cancer after exposure to low level radiation were reviewed and a risk estimation model was proposed. According to the author, It is most common to analyze a possible association between radiation exposure and adverse health effects in a population by a statistical evaluation of the data. Methods used at the Hanford plutonium manufacturing facility (SIC-2819) to study the effect on mortality of radiation exposure were discussed. At this facility, external radiation exposure has been measured through the use of dosimeters worn by employees. The author has analyzed the data by testing the null hypothesis of no association between radiation exposure and mortality, but it is noted that the data are unreliable. It is suggested that the uncertainty in the data set may be evaluated quantitatively from the confidence limits. These were obtained from a model in which the radiation risks are assumed to be proportional to spontaneous or non radiation related risks, the so called relative risk or proportional hazards model. This model was compared to an absolute risk model (BEIR-III) in an evaluation of estimates and confidence limits for leukemia risks at the Hanford facility. Based on the results of these analyses, the author concludes that at the present time risk estimations of low level exposure are best calculated from high level exposures.
Radiation-exposure; Leukemogenesis; Cancer-rates; Neoplasms; Risk-analysis; Worker-health; Epidemiology; Mathematical-models;
Proceedings of a Symposium on Epidemiology and Health Risk Assessment, Columbia, Maryland, May 14-16, 1985, Centers for Disease Control/NIOSH, 16 pages, 16 references