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Toxicology: Relationship to Occupational Health Nursing.
NIOSH 1987 Jul:139-141
Toxicology and its relationship to occupational health nursing were discussed. Toxicology is defined as the study of the adverse effects of chemical and physical agents on a biological system. Toxicity refers to the ability of a substance to cause injury to a biological tissue or system. Inhalation, skin absorption, and ingestion are the most common routes of entry of chemical toxins into the body. More than half of the deaths attributed to industrial toxins are due to respiratory failure. Although the lungs are frequently the target organ for industrial toxins, they also provide entry for substances that can cause injury to other organs, such as the liver and kidney. Factors important in influencing respiratory exposure include particle size and solubility of the inhaled substance in body fluids. Sources of information about chemical exposures useful to occupational health nurses were discussed. The major source of information is considered to be the worker himself. In emergency situations, it is considered imperative to know exactly what the worker was exposed to so that appropriate treatment can be given. Material data sheets are also sources of information. Identifying an occupational illness depends on obtaining a work history, clinical testing, and a physical examination. Clinical signs of exposure to a variety of chemical agents including carbon-monoxide (630080), organophosphates, lead (7439921), mercury (7439976), organic solvents, formaldehyde (50000), and hydrogen-sulfide (7783064) were summarized.
Industrial-hygiene; Industrial-poisons; Occupational-health-nursing; Health-protection; Toxic-effects; Industrial-safety; Medical-services; Clinical-symptoms;
630-08-0; 7439-92-1; 7439-97-6; 50-00-0; 7783-06-4;
Proceedings of the National Occupational Health Nursing Symposium: State of the Art and Directions for the Future, Cincinnati, Ohio, June 1-3, 1983
Page last reviewed: April 12, 2019
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division