The literature on neurotoxic chemicals which cause behavioral changes was reviewed. Substances identified as neurotoxic, industrial processes or products in which they occurred, and reported behavioral effects were listed. Data from neurobehavioral studies of workers exposed at existing industrial concentrations were critically evaluated. Carbon-disulfide (75150) toxicity, commonly observed in rayon workers prior to improved industrial hygiene practices, was characterized by memory loss, and impairments in psychomotor performance, vigilance, dexterity, and intelligence, as well as peripheral polyneuropathy. The estimated population at risk for exposure to carbon-monoxide (630080) exceeded that of any other occupational chemical hazard. In one study, exposure to carbon-monoxide was associated with impaired performance on dual task and eye hand coordination tests. Occupational exposure to lead (7439921) resulted in significant impairments in performance on tests of visual perception, spatial relations, visuospatial abstraction, psychomotor speed, and long term memory. Occupational exposure to mercury (7439976) was associated with memory and concentration deficits, impaired cognitive abilities, and personality changes. Workers exposed to methyl-chloride (74873), during the manufacture of foam products, scored significantly lower on tests of reaction time, vigilance, dual task performance, and eye hand coordination than unexposed comparison workers. Plastics workers chronically exposed to styrene (100425) exhibited impaired performance on tests of perceptual speed and accuracy, coordination, and cognition.