Sanitation practices employed at surface and underground coal mines were investigated by questionnaires and on/site field observation at 126 mines. Miners and mine operators were interviewed regarding practices and areas needing improvement. Included were bath and change house facilities, drinking water, sanitary wastes, refuse disposal, and pest control. There was wide variation in facilities provided at individual mines. Major differences were observed between underground and surface mines in both the need for sanitary facilities and the facilities provided. Underground mines had a much greater need for shower and changing facilities. Surface mines, due to large area and isolation of some workers, had more difficulty in providing change and shower facilities at convenient locations. Changing facilities often did not have adequate provision for separate storage of work and street clothes, or bench space. Water samples were analyzed for bacteriological quality, total and residual chlorine, and pH. Of 244 potable water (drinking and shower water) samples, 33 showed one or more coliform colonies per 100 milliliters. Drinking water provided by the company was not used by 257 of 454 underground miners and 52 of 201 surface miners. Underground toilet facilities were infrequently used. At surface mines, facilities were used more often. Solid waste was generally not found to present a health hazard. A manual of good practices was developed, and recommendations for changes in regulations were made.