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Peripheral models for the study of neurotransmitter receptors: their potential applications to occupational health.
Occupational and Environmental Chemical Hazards. Cellular and Biochemical Indices for Monitoring Toxicity. Foa V, Emmett EA, Maroni M, Colombi A, eds., New York: Halsted Press, 1987 Jan; :524-528
The study of enzymes and receptors in tissues to demonstrate that neurochemical parameters measured in peripheral tissue are valid markers of the same parameters in the brain or other organs was reviewed, with emphasis on their potential application to occupational health. Attempts made to use human skin fibroblasts as models for the study of neurotransmitter function pertaining to the cholinergic system were unsuccessful, while encouraging results were obtained by studying beta adrenergic receptors in lymphocytes. Few mechanistic studies have been made on the interaction of agents which have a toxic effect at the level of the nervous system with neurotransmitters in human cell models, except for cholinesterases. Recent studies of the interaction of organotins with serotonin in platelets indicated, however, the potential usefulness of peripheral models. Peripheral markers also appeared to be useful for the identification of susceptibility to environmental or occupational chemicals, such as pesticides and carcinogens. Workers who had a strong bronchoconstriction response to methacholine tests, for instance, were found to be more susceptible to other chemicals such as sulfur-dioxide (7446095) and diisocyanate. Experimental studies demonstrated a high correlation between exposure to organophosphates and reduced density of muscarinic receptors in the brain, accompanied by memory loss. The author concludes that the use of biochemical markers to detect toxic effects of chemicals on the nervous system has good potentials for many applications in occupational health.
NIOSH-Grant; Neurotoxicity; Toxicology; Occupational-exposure; Risk-analysis; Biological-monitoring; Behavioral-disorders; In-vitro-studies; In-vivo-studies; Biochemical-indicators
Environmental Health University of Washington Dept of Environ Hlth, SC-34 Seattle, WA 98195
Foa-V; Emmett-EA; Maroni-M; Colombi-A
Occupational and Environmental Chemical Hazards. Cellular and Biochemical Indices for Monitoring Toxicity
University of Washington, Seattle, Washington
Page last reviewed: September 2, 2020
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division