Poison ivy/oak dermatitis. Use of polyamine salts of a linoleic acid dimer for topical prophylaxis.
Orchard S; Fellman JH; Storrs FJ
Arch Dermatol 1986 Jul; 122(7):783-789
The ability of 156 different preparations of 22 different chemicals to prevent poison ivy dermatitis was investigated. Occupational exposure to the allergic component of poison ivy, urushiol (53237595) occurs in the logging, agriculture, forest fire fighting, construction and utility maintenance industries. Poison oak was listed by the state of California as the most frequent causal agent of occupational skin disorders, accounting for about 24 percent of all reported cases of occupational skin disease in the year 1979. Substances tested for their prophylactic abilities against poison ivy dermatitis included reducing agents (in an attempt to prevent oxidation of urushiol to the more reactive quinone form), simple nucleophiles and polyvinylpyrrolidone (as preferred substrates for reaction of urushiol derivatives), a dimer of linoleic-acid and several linoleic-acid dimer salts. Seventy-seven paid volunteers underwent closed patch testing to six different dilutions of a poison ivy extract to determine degree of sensitivity. Three or more weeks later, evaluation of protective substances (40 to 60 milligrams of protectants per 29.5 x 6.5 centimeter skin area) was initiated. Several polyamine salts of a linoleic-acid dimer were found to provide complete prophylaxis of the usual dermatitis in about 70 percent of tested subjects. Washing off both protectant and the antigen after 12 hours of exposure enhanced this prophylactic effect. The usefulness of these substances in preventing dermatitis occurring as a result of occupational exposure to poison ivy or poison oak was discussed.
NIOSH-Publication; NIOSH-Grant; Skin-protection; Plant-substances; Contact-allergies; Skin-tests; Allergic-reactions; Occupational-dermatitis
Dermatology Oregon Hlth Scis University 3181 S W Sam Jackson Park RD Portland, Oreg 97201
Archives of Dermatology
Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, Oregon