Compensation for Shift Work: A Model and Some Results.
NIOSH 1981 Jul:375-392
A model for shiftwork (SW) compensation was studied. The counter weight scheme assumed that SW bonus balanced inconvenient effects of SW. The weighting scale model indicated that the bonus was offered to provide for satisfactory rewards in domains unrelated to ones in which negative effects occurred. Significance of the compensatory function of the bonus might be better understood as a global balance pertaining to the way employees evaluated a job in which heterogeneous advantages were balanced with heterogeneous shortcomings. Analysis suggested that feelings of isolation could be reduced by combined effect of increasing workers' control and more dynamic leadership of the direct supervisor. The counter value model focused on specific sub balances to reduce or eliminate actual inconveniences. Since many uncomfortable aspects of SW could not be changed, it was recommended to compensate for effects of inconveniences by offering SW employees the same conveniences as available to daytime employees. If an inconvenience indicated a loss in status, intervention should provide for counter value compensation in the form of job enrichment. Counter value interventions resulting in appropriate compensations could follow three approaches. The first centered on major objective and subjective data with regard to, for example, circadian rhythms. The second was based on analysis of working and living conditions that apply to SW. The third considered personal experiences, perceptions, and preferences of shift workers. Evidence from a study of about 100 shift workers in a paper mill indicated that subjective health, family, social activities, and leisure aspects provided a lot of discomfort and complaint. The overall tendency was that experiencing more complaints coincided with the expectation that intervention would be more beneficial. The available data suggested eight different categories of intervention that were expected to relate in a meaningful way to the inconvenience in question.
Shift-work; Models; Psychological-fatigue; Psychological-factors; Psychological-effects; Health-protection; Job-stress; Workplace-studies;
The Twenty-Four Hour Workday: Proceedings of a Symposium on Variations in Work-Sleep Schedules, Division of Biomedical and Behavioral Science, NIOSH, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Cincinnati, Ohio, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 81-127