Lighting and thermal operations. energy management action program for commercial public industrial buildings. guidelines.
The occupational safety and health effects associated with reduced levels of illumination, proceedings of a symposium, July 11-12, 1974, Cincinnati, Ohio. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No. 75-142, 1975 Mar; :117-134
Guidelines were compiled by the United States Federal Energy Administration, Office of Conservation and Environment, which define the targets for illumination levels, for efficiency in lighting and for operation of heating and cooling systems. Illumination guidelines were presented for commercial buildings, industrial buildings and hospitals. Guidelines were also drawn for efficiency in lighting by selection of efficient lighting equipment, controlling unnecessary lighting and turning off the lights during the hours when buildings are not occupied. Measurement of lighting levels may be made with portable illumination meters which should be calibrated to a basic accuracy of +/- 15 percent over 30 to 500 footcandles and +/- 20 percent from 15 to 30 footcandles. Recommended maximum lighting levels were presented in a table for locations in an office environment. Hallways or corridors should be illuminated at 10 +/- 5 footcandles and areas surrounding work stations should be illuminated at 30 +/- 5 footcandles. Work areas should be provided with 50 to 100 footcandles, depending on the difficulty of the task and the length of time to be spent at that task. Industrial tasks should be illuminated as per ANSI-A11.1- 1973. A table was compiled to evaluate the degrees of visual difficulty for office work to determine the amount of lighting required for each task. Thirteen tasks were ranked on a 15 point visual difficulty rating scale; the difficulty rating for a task should be multiplied by the number of decimal hours per day that the task is performed. The product for each task performed in a day by a worker should be added to arrive at a total difficulty factor. If the total is greater than 40, provide 75 footcandles on the work station. If the total is greater than 60, provide 100 footcandles on the workstation. For workers over 50 years of age and for workers with noncorrectable eyesight problems, the difficulty factors should be multiplied by 1.5. Relamping to a lower wattage was evaluated in a table which enumerated the energy cost savings of such procedures.
Lighting-systems; Standards; Illumination; Exposure-limits; Occupational-health; Health-hazards; Safety-measures; Industrial-environment; Office-equipment
The occupational safety and health effects associated with reduced levels of illumination, proceedings of a symposium, July 11-12, 1974, Cincinnati, Ohio