A brief review of the illumination levels in the United Kingdom revealed that the recommended levels in this particular country were generally substantially lower than in the United States. Reference was made to experimental data generated by studies carried out in vertebrates, which have demonstrated that levels of lighting that are considered normal can be harmful to the eye. An apparent correlation was established between the recommended lighting levels and the wealth of a given country. In the United Kingdom, the illumination levels for airplane repair service areas, art galleries, assemblies, fine work, extra fine work, book binding, and cutting were established at (in footcandles) 45, 28, 29, 93, 140, 46 and 70, respectively; the respective recommended levels in the United States were established at 100, 100, 50, 500, 100, 70 and 70. In libraries the recommended level in the United Kingdom for the study of notes was established at 46, in stacks 14, book repair 40, cataloging 46 and checkout desks 46; the respective figures for the United States libraries were established at 70, 40, 70, and 70. For rough bench and machine work in machine shops, the recommended levels in the United Kingdom were established at 28 as compared to 50 in the United States, while for fine bench and machine work, the respective figures were established at 93 and 500.
The Occupational Safety and Health Effects Associated with Reduced Levels of Illumination. Proceedings of a Symposium, July 11-12, 1974, Cincinnati, Ohio, NIOSH, Division of Laboratory and Criteria Development, HEW Publication No. (NIOSH) 75-142