Occupational Diseases, A Guide to Their Recognition, Revised Edition. Key MM, Henschel AF, Butler J, Ligs RN, Tabershaw IR, eds., Cincinnati, OH: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 1977 Jun; :45-76
Biological occupational hazards are discussed. Workers are most likely exposed to biological hazards if their work takes them outside or into contact with plants or animals or their products, or with food and food processing. Biological hazards also exist for hospital and laboratory personnel and for those who travel and work in new environments. Viral diseases likely encountered on the job include animal respiratory viruses, poxviruses, enteroviruses, and arboviruses. Specific viral diseases include rabies, cat scratch disease, orf, milker's nodules, newcastle disease, and viral hepatitis. Rickettsial and chlamydial diseases include Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Q-fever, and ornithosis. The most common bacterial infections seen which are occupationally derived result from the neglect of minor wounds, abrasions, and excoriated dermatitis. Many causative bacteria exist, but chief among the organisms responsible are staphylococci and streptococci. Bacterial infections include tetanus, anthrax, brucellosis, leptospirosis, plague, food poisoning, tuberculosis, mycobacterial infections, erysipeloid, and tularemia. Fungal diseases are mostly confined to farm workers, outdoor workers, and animal breeders. These include candidiasis, aspergillosis, coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, mycetoma, sporotrichosis, chromoblastomycoses, and dermatophytoses. Parasitic infections of occupational origin are caused by protozoa, helminths, and arthropods and include malaria, amebiasis, leishmaniasis, trypanosomiasis, and various less common blood and gastrointestinal infections.