Approaches to the estimation of exposure in occupational epidemiology.
Landrigan-PJ; Melius-JM; Rinsky-RA; Thun-MJ
Risk quantitation and regulatory policy. 19 Banbury Report. Hoel DG, Merrill RA, Perera FP, eds. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1985 Jan; :65-78
Duration of employment, job category, and use of personal monitoring data were assessed as measures of exposure. Assumptions in the variation in exposure, incidence of short term peaks in toxin levels, and existence of an exposure effect relationship required appropriate weighting. Data on the leukemia mortality in rubber workers provided no information on risk of leukemia at specific levels of benzene (71432) exposure. Results of a study of cadmium (7440439) (Cd) workers indicated a higher mortality from respiratory cancer among Cd production workers that reached a plateau at the nine year exposure. Change of jobs brought a decline. In the additive exposure model, information on job assignment was used as a surrogate indicator of exposure. The approach was based on the assumption that external exposure is equal to biologically significant dose. It was assumed that inhalation rates were equal, that fractional deposition of airborne particles in lungs was the same at all levels of exposure, and that exposure records were reliable. The time integrated approach to exposure modeling was employed in a study of mortality among chrysotile asbestos (12001295) workers. A similar approach was used in the evaluation of mortality from respiratory diseases among underground miners and in a quantitative examination of leukemia mortality in workers exposed to benzene. Personal monitoring data were used to assess the risk of radiation exposure to cancer mortality among shipyard workers in New Hampshire. The standardized mortality ratio for death from lung cancer was significantly higher for workers exposed to 1.00 roentgen equivalent man or greater. Mortality was also elevated in workers exposed to asbestos and welding fumes.
Epidemiology; Mortality-rates; Mortality-surveys; Industrial-factory-workers; Metal-workers; Mine-workers; Cadmium-dust; Asbestos-fibers; Monocyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons; Carcinogens; Leukemogenesis; Lung-cancer
71-43-2; 7440-43-9; 12001-29-5
Hoel DG; Merrill RA; Perera FP
Risk quantitation and regulatory policy Policy. 19 Banbury Report