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Investigation of Drosophila for Teratogenic Screening.
Schuler RL; Hardin BD; Niemeier RW
Safety Evaluation and Regulation of Chemicals, First International Conference, Boston, Massachusetts, 1982 1983:270-276
A standardized approach for preliminary screening in teratological investigations using Drosophila was reported. The method involved the incorporation of test chemicals into the medium upon which the larval stages were fed. Following emergence from the pupal stage, the adult flies were examined for morphological abnormalities. The incidences of abnormalities found in the treated flies were compared to those observed in concurrent control flies using the chi square test. Bisphenol-A (80057) (BA) at a concentration of 30mg/g, diethylene-glycol-monobutylether (112345) at 10 microliters/gram (microl/g), N,N-dimethylacetamide (127195) (DMA) at 0.25microl/g, ethylene-glycol-monomethyl-ether (109864) (EGMEE) at 7.5microl/g, diethylene-glycol-monoethyl-ether (111900) at 7.5microl/g, niacin (59676) at 25mg/g, and thymidine (50895) at 3mg/g, were tested. The highest percentage of morphological abnormalities was observed with DMA; 40.4 percent showed bent bristles. Abnormalities in the presence of other compounds were generally below 5 percent, or absent. In the validation studies, flies were fed 6-amino- nicotinamide (1320861) (ANA) at 3 to 5mg/g, cyclophosphamide (50180) at 0.10mg/g, and hydroxyurea (127071) at 0.2microl/g. The replicate testing results were performed with dimethylsulfoxide (67685) (DMSO) at 3 to 5microl/g, 2-ethoxyethanol (110805) (EEt) at 10 and 15microl/g, and sodium-heparin (9005496) at 1000 units (solution)/g media, 750 units/g, or 5 and 10mg/g. Wing notches were found in 3, 15, 18, and 14 percent of flies treated with DMA, DMSO, EET, and EGMEE, respectively. The data indicated a dose response relationship for several of the test compounds. In DMSO treated flies, the humeral bristle defects increased from 13 to 70 percent and wing notches from 3 to 21 percent when the concentration increased from 3 to 5microl/g. With EEt wing notch formation increased from 0 to 10 percent at 10 microl/g to 18 to 19 percent at 15 microl/g. While sodium-heparin caused numerous bristle defects at high concentrations, no dose response relationship could be derived from the data. The types of abnormalities elicited were usually chemical specific.
In-vivo-studies; Insects; Teratogens; Biochemical-tests; Toxic-materials; Organic-chemicals; Mutagenicity; Sensitivity-testing; NIOSH-Author; Ethers;
80-05-7; 112-34-5; 127-19-5; 109-86-4; 111-90-0; 59-67-6; 50-89-5; 1320-86-1; 50-18-0; 127-07-1; 67-68-5; 110-80-5; 9005-49-6;
Safety Evaluation and Regulation of Chemicals, First International Conference, Boston, Massachusetts, 1982
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