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Handle positions and angles in a dynamic lifting task. Part 1. Biomechanical considerations.
Ergonomics 1986 Jun; 29(6):743-768
Biomechanical measurements were taken during a study of manual lifting and lowering of boxes employing a lifting task over three distances and using boxes with hand hold cut outs in four handle positions (three asymmetric and one symmetric). A group of 15 men and 15 women manual materials handling employees participated in the study. The square boxes were made of plywood, 400 millimeters on a side, and weighed 11 kilograms. The handle positions on each side of the box were numbered from 1 to 9 in a three by three array, left to right, starting at the top. Handle angles were fixed at either 70 or 35 degrees to the horizontal. Box, wrist deviation, slippage, and elbow angles were measured at each of five stages of lifting or lowering between floor and shoulder heights. Biomechanical measures showed few gender or trial effects. The study concluded that two of the asymmetrical box handle positions were optimum for most lifts, while the symmetrical handle position was useful for heavy boxes at floor level. The authors conclude that these findings are likely to be valid across a wide range of workers, box sizes, and box weights.
NIOSH-Author; Materials-handling-equipment; Biomechanics; Biomechanical-engineering; Musculoskeletal-system; Ergonomics; Human-factors-engineering; Humans
Issue of Publication
Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Upper Extremities; Disease and Injury; Musculoskeletal-system
Page last reviewed: April 12, 2019
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division