In vivo bone lead measurements: a rapid monitoring method for cumulative lead exposure.
Wielopolski-L; Ellis-KJ; Vaswani-AN; Cohn-SH; Greenberg-A; Puschett-JB; Parkinson-DK; Fetterolf-DE; Landrigan-PJ
Am J Ind Med 1986 Mar; 9(3):221-226
An X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique for monitoring cumulative lead (7439921) exposure in-vivo was described. The technique was based on the ability of lead atoms to emit characteristic X-rays after being stimulated by external irradiation. The stimulated radiation was monitored externally by a solid state detector and could be expressed in terms of the lead content of the bone. Lead contents of 45 males who had chronic industrial lead exposure were determined with the technique of irradiating the tibia with a cadmium-109 source to stimulate lead X-rays. Calibration was achieved by correlating X-ray intensities obtained from the leg of a cadaver with atomic absorption analysis of a bone sample from the same site. Blood lead, urine lead after administration of 1 gram calcium- ethylenediaminetetraacetate (CaEDTA) to stimulate excretion, unstimulated urinary lead, and zinc-protoporphyrin (ZPP) concentrations were also determined. The bone lead concentrations determined by the XRF technique ranged from 0 to 198 micrograms per gram (microg/g) wet bone, mean 52.9microg/g. Regression analysis gave correlation coefficients of 0.69 for bone versus urinary lead following CaEDTA treatment, 0.44 for bone lead versus blood lead, unstimulated urinary lead excretion. The minimum detection limit of the technique was about 20microg/g. The authors suggest that in- vivo XRF measurements of tibial lead content may serve as an acceptable indicator of lead body burden, and may be useful for lead screening purposes. The technique is brief, noninvasive, and carries a low risk.
NIOSH-Publication; NIOSH-Grant; In-vivo-studies; Health-hazards; Industrial-environment; Exposure-levels; Occupational-hazards; Biological-monitoring; Chemical-properties; Analytical-methods; Workplace-studies; Monitoring-systems
Medicine University of Pittsburgh 1191 Scaife Hall Pittsburgh PA 15217
American Journal of Industrial Medicine
University of Pittsburgh at Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania