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Cytotoxic and proliferative changes in tracheal organ and cell cultures after exposure to mineral dusts.
Mossman-BT; Adler-KB; Craighead-JE
The In Vitro Effects of Mineral Dusts. Brown RC, Chamberlain M, Davies R, Gormley IP, eds., New York: Academic Press, 1980 Jan; :241-250
The effects of mineral dusts on tracheal tissue were evaluated in- vitro. Explants of tracheobronchial mucosa prepared from female hamsters and guinea-pigs were incubated with 0.04 to 80 milligrams per milliliter hematite (1317608), crocidolite (12001284), or chrysotile (12001295) with or without added 2 percent chicken serum. At selected times between 15 minutes and 1 week, representative specimens were examined for morphological changes and cytotoxicity. A cloned cell isolated from the tracheal epithelium of a neonatal hamster was incubated with 0.5 to 10 micrograms per milliliter hematite, crocidolite, or chrysotile. The dusts were added when the cells were in the plateau or confluence phases. Monolayers were analyzed at 24 hour intervals for protein or DNA. The cells were examined for morphologic changes. Dose/dependent cytotoxicity was observed in hamster and guinea-pig explants exposed to crocidolite or chrysotile. Hematite showed no cytotoxicity. The cytotoxicity of chrysotile, but not crocidolite, was decreased when the incubation mixture contained chicken serum. Morphological changes induced by both forms of asbestos included vesiculation of the cytoplasm, desquamation of superficial cells, and hypersecretion of mucin secreting cells. In cloned cells, chrysotile caused a dose/dependent inhibition of growth, whereas crocidolite induced increased DNA concentrations. When chrysotile at 0.5 microgram per milliter was introduced into cultures at confluence, the DNA content was elevated, compared to control cultures. Hematite had no effect on DNA or protein content. Groups of cells would frequently align themselves along the crocidolite fibers, assuming spindle like shapes. Giant and binucleated cells were observed in cultures exposed to either crocidolite or chrysotile. The authors conclude that the cytotoxic effects of asbestos do not appear to be related to a soluble material in the mineral.
NIOSH-Grant; Cell-biology; Exposure-levels; Physiological-response; Protein-chemistry; In-vitro-studies; Dust-exposure; Biological-effects; Tissue-disorders; Toxic-effects; Cytochemistry
Pathology and Oncology Medical Alumni Building University of Vermont Burlington, VT 05401
1317-60-8; 12001-28-4; 12001-29-5
Brown-RC; Chamberlain-M; Davies-R; Gormley-IP
The In Vitro Effects of Mineral Dusts
University of Vermont & St Agric College, Burlington, Vermont
Page last reviewed: May 5, 2020
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division