Pulmonary effects of acute vanadium pentoxide inhalation in monkeys.
Knecht-EA; Moorman-WJ; Clark-JC; Lynch-DW; Lewis-TR
Am Rev Respir Dis 1985 Dec; 132(6):1181-1185
The effects of acute vanadium-pentoxide (1314621) (VPO) exposure on pulmonary function were investigated in monkeys. Sixteen male Macaca-fascicularis-monkeys were exposed to VPO dust by acute, whole body inhalation at 0.5 or 5.0 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3) VPO at a 1 week interval. Bronchoalveolar lavage was conducted after pulmonary function testing of each animal was completed. Postexposure values for pulmonary function and bronchoalveolar lavage were compared with baseline values determined for each monkey prior to exposure. VPO dust exposure were conducted in two separate inhalation chambers with average concentrations of 0.5 or 5.0mg/m3. Acute inhalation of VPO dust caused impairment in pulmonary function at an aerosol concentration of 5.0mg/m3 VPO but not at 0.5mg/m3 VPO. No significant changes in dynamic compliance forced volume concentration, total lung capacity, or the diffusion capacity for carbon-monoxide were observed. There was a significant increase in the total number of cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid 1 day after acute inhalation of VPO dust. The increase in the number of cells by differential counting occurred through a marked increase in the absolute number and relative percentage of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Acute inhalation of 0.38 or 0.75 molar aqueous solutions of sodium-vanadate (11105069) administered by intrabronchial aerosolization caused immediate impairment in pulmonary function; a significant increase in pulmonary resistance and decreases in air flow were recorded at both exposure concentrations. Preexposure bronchial challenges with methacholine produced a significant increase in pulmonary resistance and a decrease in air flow. The authors conclude that air flow limitation is demonstrated in monkeys acutely exposed to VPO dust which is associated with an increased total cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage recovered from the lungs.
NIOSH-Author; Pulmonary-function; Respiratory-irritants; Dust-exposure; Laboratory-animals; Laboratory-techniques; Acute-exposure; Lung-function; Pretreatment; Exposure-levels
American Review of Respiratory Disease