Ergonomic design features for metal cutting lathes are discussed. The most common injury factors associated with lathe operations include the chuck or work holding device, chips generated by tooling, and the work piece being machined. The strategy for reducing injuries at lathes is to eliminate or reduce the possibility of the fingers, hands, or arms being struck by machine elements or work pieces. Methods for reducing risks include shield protection, special hand tools or devices, and reliable machine controls. Controls that operate reliably will reduce the chance of injury. Improperly designed methods for injury prevention can cause problems of inconvenience, complexity, and hazardous conditions. Safe design should consider the types of machining operations being performed, material being machined, steps involved in setting up the job, and number of parts being produced per job. Chuck size and jaw arrangement should not require workers to extend the jaws beyond the outer diameter of the chuck. Chuck wrenches should be highly visible from where the worker normally stands. Chuck guards are important on production lathes where the repetitive nature of the operation can cause a worker to become inattentive; an interlock can be provided to prevent the lathe from being started without the guard being in the closed position. Cutting tools should be made of the proper grade material and have the correct tool geometry. The work station should be designed to allow the worker to easily stop the spindle, turn the motor off, and remove the cuttings with pliers or protective gloves. To control work piece hazards, the work pieces should be secured against radial movement away from the chuck, against longitudinal movement of the chuck, and against radial movement away from the tail stock center.