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Reproductive toxicity of the industrial solvent 2-ethoxyethanol in rats and interactive effects of ethanol.
Nelson BK; Brightwell WS; Setzer JV; O'Donohue TL
Environ Health Perspect 1984 Aug; 57:255-259
Effects of 2-ethoxyethanol (110805) and interactive effects of ethanol (64175) given prenatally were studied in rats. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley-rats were exposed to ethanol in drinking water or ethoxyethanol through inhalation 7 hours a day. They were given each test agent alone or in combination at different times during gestation. Rats were exposed to ethanol alone at 10 percent on days 7 through 13 or days 14 through 20. Other rats were exposed to 100 parts per million ethoxyethanol alone on days 7 through 13 or 14 through 20. Some rats were exposed to both at the same periods. Sham exposed rats served as controls. One male and one female pup from each litter were used for behavioral testing using rotorod and ascent tests among others to assess prenatal toxicity. Other pups were killed at 21 days after birth and brain regions studied spectrofluorometrically for changes in acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine and 5-hydroxytryptamine. Ethoxyethanol generally extended pregnancy duration but ethanol did not. Ethanol at the earlier time was associated with advanced neuromuscular ability on the ascent test and poor performance on the rotorod. Ethoxyethanol alone on days 7 through 13 caused decreases in rotorod performance. In combination early in gestation ethanol appeared to reduce effects of ethoxyethanol. Later in gestation ethanol caused no detectable behavioral effects but ethoxyethanol reduced performance by several measures. Combined exposure depressed both activity and learning to a greater degree. Early ethanol exposure caused an increase in midbrain acetylcholine. Early ethoxyethanol increased acetylcholine, dopamine and norepinephrine in some brain areas. In combination, ethanol moderated these effects. Late in gestation, ethanol reduced dopamine, norepinephrine and 5-hydroxytryptamine while ethoxyethanol alone increased them. Combined exposure altered the pattern but enhanced overall effects. The authors conclude that 2-ethoxyethanol is prenatally toxic and that there is interaction with ethanol.
NIOSH-Author; Industrial-exposures; Occupational-hazards; Industrial-safety; Toxic-materials; Toxicology; Animal-studies; Proteins; Industrial-environment; Industrial-chemicals; Nerve-damage; Industrial-hazards
Environmental Health Perspectives
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Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division